Question regarding the public reactions to racism

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Sep 22, 2011
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#81
Cool. Thanks for the info on Nigerians. I worked with several Nigerians in Australia as well as one person from Zimbabwe and one from Rwanda. All great people.

So, what is the reason that new immigrants do well but our own minorities do so poorly? If not racism, what? Why would actual Nigerians who could live in poverty not live in poverty but people who are Americans with the same ethnic background do so? As you obviously strongly feel it is not racism, what is it that makes it happen to them more than others?

BTW, the doctor from Zimbabwe was one of the best docs I ever worked with. Very sharp. Did very well on the written exam for emergency medicine fellowship. But, despite trying many, many times, could never pass the oral exam proctored by another physician.

The Australian College of Emergency Medicine (ACEM) has been accused of systemic racism by more than 30 non-white students, who have revealed their white colleagues are 13 times more likely to be admitted as specialist emergency doctors.

The students have lodged a highly detailed 34-page complaint with the college showing that, of 204 candidates participating in the program for the second half of last year, non-white candidates — who make up more than a quarter of all enrolments — had a clinical exam pass rate of just 6.8 per cent. https://emergencypedia.com/2017/01/28/shocking-article-acem-accused-of-systematic-prejudice/
Lack of fathers
 

okstate987

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#83
Blacks and whites USE drugs at the same rate, they dont DEAL drugs at the same rate, they dont participate in gangs, assault, rob, murder, rape or commit other violent crimes at the same rate.

as to why this is the case? Probably need someone smarter than me for that, but i would start with the 70% of black children being raised by single mothers
Do you think mass incarceration has had a hand in why so many mothers are single?
 
Sep 22, 2011
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#84
Do you think mass incarceration has had a hand in why so many mothers are single?
The term mass incarceration has always been strange to me, do you feel that the people in jail right now did or did not commit crime? Black people are in jail more because they commit more crime.
 

okstate987

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#86
I hear there is systemic racism embedded in our justice system, education system, corporate job environments, sports leagues, and various other institutions and organizations. While there may be some level of racism contained therein, IMO, the problems the black community experiences in those environments have many root causes which won’t be meaningfully solved by curing any imbedded racism that may exist.


Sent from my iPhone using Tapatalk
Tearing down statues, especially statues paid for and commissioned by slaves, is stupid and won't solve anything.

Sent from my Moto Z (2) using Tapatalk[/QUOTE]
So solving the mechanisms that have a significant impact on why there is a discrepancy between white and black earnings, net worth and general life opportunities won't have any effect on their quality of life? That doesn't make sense to me.

Your statues comment is a straw man. The vast majority of statues that have been pulled down were paid for by the daughters of the confederacy and other groups in the period of 1910-1960. They were built in predominantly black areas of town as a way to intimidate the black populace there. Do you have an issue with those statues coming down knowing the intent and timing of putting them up?
 

okstate987

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The term mass incarceration has always been strange to me, do you feel that the people in jail right now did or did not commit crime? Black people are in jail more because they commit more crime.
What would you call having the largest incarcerated population in the history of mankind? I think mass incarceration is a pretty apt name for it. Also, you must have not read those links I shared. Black people are not committing more drug crime, they are just being convicted of it at a far higher rate. You don't see any issue with that?

I don't think that someone who decides to alter their brain chemistry using internal or external means is a criminal. People should have that agency to decide for themselves, they are responsible for the outcomes, good or bad.
 
Sep 22, 2011
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#88
Too simple.

Why are there a lack of fathers in African-Americans but not in African immigrants? Is that even true? Are there more single-family homes in descendants of slavery vs new immigrants?
Thats why i said someone smarter than me was needed to get to the bottom of it, here is what i do know. In order for society to continue, people have to be held accountable for their illegal actions, especially the violent ones, regardless of the circumstances of your ancestors. All of these protests come from disproportionate violence on black people by police but completely disregard the reason for that, black people commit disproportionately more crime,
 
Sep 22, 2011
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#89
What would you call having the largest incarcerated population in the history of mankind? I think mass incarceration is a pretty apt name for it. Also, you must have not read those links I shared. Black people are not committing more drug crime, they are just being convicted of it at a far higher rate. You don't see any issue with that?

I don't think that someone who decides to alter their brain chemistry using internal or external means is a criminal. People should have that agency to decide for themselves, they are responsible for the outcomes.
Once again there is a big difference between smoking weed in your parents basement and holding down a street corner. Once again, do you think the people in jail are innocent?
 

okstate987

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Thats why i said someone smarter than me was needed to get to the bottom of it, here is what i do know. In order for society to continue, people have to be held accountable for their illegal actions, especially the violent ones, regardless of the circumstances of your ancestors. All of these protests come from disproportionate violence on black people by police but completely disregard the reason for that, black people commit disproportionately more crime,
This is a pretty fascinating read on how genetic expression appears be impacted for generations after a traumatic event. It focuses on children of POW's however, I think slavery and Jim Crow would qualify as a traumatic event.

Can the legacy of trauma be passed down the generations?


Our children and grandchildren are shaped by the genes they inherit from us, but new research is revealing that experiences of hardship or violence can leave their mark too.

In 1864, nearing the end of the US Civil War, conditions in the Confederate prisoner of war camps were at their worst. There was such overcrowding in some camps that the prisoners, Union Army soldiers from the north, each had the square footage of a grave. Prisoner death rates soared.
For those who survived, the harrowing experiences marked many of them for life. They returned to society with impaired health, worse job prospects and shorter life expectancy. But the impact of these hardships did not stop with those who experienced it. It also had an effect on the prisoners’ children and grandchildren, which appeared to be passed down the male line of families.
While their sons and grandsons had not suffered the hardships of the PoW camps – and if anything were well provided for through their childhoods – they suffered higher rates of mortality than the wider population. It appeared the PoWs had passed on some element of their trauma to their offspring.
You might also like:
What happens when the food runs out?
Wet countries that are running dry
Why more men take their own lives
But unlike most inherited conditions, this was not caused by mutations to the genetic code itself. Instead, the researchers were investigating a much more obscure type of inheritance: how events in someone’s lifetime can change the way their DNA is expressed, and how that change can be passed on to the next generation.
This is the process of epigenetics, where the readability, or expression, of genes is modified without changing the DNA code itself. Tiny chemical tags are added to or removed from our DNA in response to changes in the environment in which we are living. These tags turn genes on or off, offering a way of adapting to changing conditions without inflicting a more permanent shift in our genomes.

The effects of trauma may echo down several generations, from a grandfather to their son and then to their grandson (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
But if these epigenetic changes acquired during life can indeed also be passed on to later generations, the implications would be huge. Your experiences during your lifetime – particularly traumatic ones – would have a very real impact on your family for generations to come. There are a growing number of studies that support the idea that the effects of trauma can reverberate down the generations through epigenetics.
For the PoWs in the Confederate camps, these epigenetic changes were a result of the extreme overcrowding, poor sanitation and malnutrition. The men had to survive on small rations of corn, and many died from diarrhoea and scurvy.
“There is this period of intense starvation,” says study author Dora Costa, an economist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “The men were reduced to walking skeletons.”
The sons of PoWs had an 11% higher mortality rate than the sons of non-PoW veterans
Costa and her colleagues studied the health records of nearly 4,600 children whose fathers had been PoWs, comparing them to just over 15,300 children of veterans of the war who had not been captured.
The sons of PoWs had an 11% higher mortality rate than the sons of non-PoW veterans. Other factors such as the father’s socioeconomic status and the son’s job and marital status couldn’t account for the higher mortality rate, the researchers found.
This excess mortality was mainly due to higher rates of cerebral haemorrhage. The sons of PoW veterans were also slightly more likely to die from cancer. But the daughters of former PoWs appeared to be immune to these effects.
This unusual sex-linked pattern was one of the reasons that made Costa suspect that these health differences were caused by epigenetic changes. But first Costa and her team had to rule out that it was a genetic effect.

For some reason, the trauma seem to be most strongly passed from fathers to their sons (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
“What could have happened is that a genetic trait which enabled the father to survive the camp, a tendency toward obesity for example, was then bad during normal times,” says Costa. “However, if you look within families, there are only effects among sons born after but not before the war.”
If it were a genetic trait then children born before and after the war would be equally likely to show the reduced life expectancy. With a genetic cause ruled out, the most plausible explanation left was an epigenetic effect.
“The hypothesis is that there’s an epigenetic effect on the Y chromosome,” says Costa. This effect is consistent with studies in remote Swedish villages, where shortages in food supply had a generational effect down the male line, but not the female line.
But what if this increased risk of death was due to a legacy of the father’s trauma that had nothing to do with DNA? What if traumatised fathers were more likely to abuse their children, leading to long-term health consequences, and sons bore the brunt of it more than daughters?
Children born to men before they became PoWs didn’t have a spike in mortality, but the sons of the same men after their PoW camp experience did
Once again, comparing the health of children within families helped rule this out. Children born to men before they became PoWs didn’t have a spike in mortality. But the sons of the same men after their PoW camp experience did.
“It’s a case of ruling out the other possible options,” says Costa. “A lot of it is proof by elimination and what is the most consistent explanation.”
Many of the times when trauma is thought to have echoed down the generations via epigenetics in humans are linked to the darkest moments in history. Wars, famines and genocides are all thought to have left an epigenetic mark on the descendants of those who suffered them.

An epigenetic signal in the children of people who have survived traumatic experiences raises hopes of reversing the effect it has on their DNA (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
Some studies have proved more controversial than others. A 2015 study found that the children of the survivors of the Holocaust had epigenetic changes to a gene that was linked to their levels of cortisol, a hormone involved in the stress response.
“The idea of a signal, an epigenetic finding that is in offspring of trauma survivors can mean a lot of things,” says Rachel Yehuda, director of the Traumatic Stress Studies Division at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and an author of the study. “It’s exciting that it’s there.”
The study was small, assessing just 32 Holocaust survivors and a total of 22 of their children, with a small control group. Researchers have criticised the conclusions of the study. Without looking at several generations and searching more widely in the genome, we can’t be sure it is really epigenetic inheritance.
Yehuda acknowledges that the paper was blown out of proportion in some reports, and larger studies assessing several generations would be needed draw firm conclusions.
“It was one single small study, a cross-section of adults many, many years after parental trauma. The fact we got a hint was big news,” says Yehuda. “Now the question is, how do you put meat on the bones? How do you really understand the mechanism of what is happening?”
When pups smelled the scent of cherry blossom, they became more jumpy and nervous than pups whose fathers hadn’t been conditioned to fear it
Controlled experiments in mice have allowed researchers to hone in on this question. A 2013 study found that there was an intergenerational effect of trauma associated with scent. The researchers blew acetophenone – which has the scent of cherry blossom – through the cages of adult male mice, zapping their foot with an electric current at the same time. Over several repetitions, the mice associated the smell of cherry blossom with pain.

The idea that the effect of a traumatic experience might be passed from a parent to their offspring is still regarded as controversial by many (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
Shortly afterwards, these males bred with female mice. When their pups smelled the scent of cherry blossom, they became more jumpy and nervous than pups whose fathers hadn’t been conditioned to fear it. To rule out that the pups were somehow learning about the smell from their parents, they were raised by unrelated mice who had never smelt cherry blossom.
The grandpups of the traumatised males also showed heightened sensitivity to the scent. Neither of the generations showed a greater sensitivity to smells other than cherry blossom, indicating that the inheritance was specific to that scent.
This sensitivity to cherry blossom scent was linked back to epigenetic modifications in their sperm DNA. Chemical markers on their DNA were found on a gene encoding a smell receptor, expressed in the olfactory bulb between the nose and the brain, which is involved in sensing the cherry blossom scent. When the team dissected the pups’ brains they also found there was a greater number of the neurons that detect the cherry blossom scent, compared with control mice.
It is not that fear is being passed down the generations – it is that fear in one generation leads to sensitivity in the next
The second and third generation appeared to have not a fear of the scent itself, but a heightened sensitivity to it. The finding brings to light an often-missed subtlety of epigenetic inheritance – that the next generation doesn’t always show exactly the same trait that their parents developed. It is not that fear is being passed down the generations – it is that fear of a scent in one generation leads to sensitivity to the same scent in the next.
“So this is not ‘apples for apples’,” says Brian Dias, author of the study and a researcher at Emory University and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in the US. Even the term “inheritance” should be qualified here, he adds. “The word inheritance suggests it has to be a faithful representation of a trait that’s passed down.”
The consequences of passing down the effects of trauma are huge, even if they are subtly altered between generations. It would change the way we view how our lives in the context of our parents’ experience, influencing our physiology and even our mental health.

The offspring of mice condititioned to fear the smell of flowers would also be sensitive to the same scent (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
And knowing that the consequences of our own actions and experiences now could affect the lives of our children – even long before they might be conceived – could put a very different spin on how we choose to live.
Despite picking up these echoes of trauma down the generations, there is a big stumbling block with research into epigenetic inheritance: no one is sure how it happens. Some scientists think that it is actually a very rare event.
One of the reasons that it may not be widespread is that the vast majority of one type of epigenetic mark on the DNA – the addition of a clump of chemicals known as methylation – is wiped clean at the very start of life and the process of adding these chemical groups to the DNA begins almost from scratch.
Despite these echoes of trauma down the generations, there is a big stumbling block with research into epigenetic inheritance: no one is sure how it happens
“As soon as the sperm enters the egg in a mammal, there’s a rapid loss of DNA methylation from the paternal set of chromosomes,” says Anne Ferguson-Smith, a researcher studying epigenetics at the University of Cambridge. “That’s the reason why transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is such a surprise.
“It’s very hard to imagine how you could have epigenetic inheritance when there’s a process of removal of all the epigenetic marks and putting on new ones in the next generation.”
There are, however, parts of the genome that are not wiped clean. A process called genomic imprinting protects the methylation at specific points of the genome. But these sites are not the ones where the epigenetic changes relevant to trauma are found.
A recent study by Ferguson-Smith’s group suggests epigenetic inheritance is probably very rare in mice.

Epigenetics is thought to be the link between nature and nurture, where a person's experiences alters how their DNA is read by their cells (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
But other researchers are convinced that they have found the hallmarks of epigenetic inheritance for several traits – in humans as well as animals. What’s more, they think they’ve found a mechanism for how it works. This time it could be molecules similar to DNA – known as RNA – that are altering how genes function.
A recent paper has revealed strong evidence that RNA may play a role in how the effects of trauma can be inherited. Researchers examined how trauma early in life could be passed on by taking mouse pups away from their mothers right after birth.
“Our model is quite unique,” says Isabelle Mansuy of the University of Zürich and ETH Zürich, who led the research. “It’s to mimic dislocated families, or the abuse, neglect and emotional damage that you sometimes see in people.”
The symptoms these pups showed as they grew up also mimicked the symptoms seen in children who have experienced early trauma. The mice showed signs of increased risk-taking and higher calorie intake, both seen in child trauma survivors. When the males grew up, they had pups that showed similar traits – overeating, risk taking and higher levels of antisocial behaviour.
The pups showed the typical altered behavioural patterns of those whose parents experienced trauma
The researchers extracted RNA molecules from the sperm of male mice who had been traumatised and injected these molecules into early the embryos of mice whose parents had not experienced this early-life trauma. The resulting pups, however, showed the typical altered behavioural patterns of a pup whose parents experienced trauma.
They also found that different lengths of RNA molecules were linked to different behavioural patterns: longer RNAs corresponded to greater food intake, changed the body’s response to insulin and greater risk-taking. Smaller RNA molecules were linked to showing signs of despair.
“It’s the first time we’ve seen this link in a causal way,” says Mansuy.

It is possible that emotional damage experienced in your own childhood could be passed on to your children (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
How these RNA molecules alter the behaviour of multiple generations is not yet known. Mansuy is now running experiments in humans to see if similar processes are at work in humans. Initial experiments by other researchers have shown that this does seem to be the case in men.
This research – as well as many of the mice studies – focus on sperm and epigenetic inheritance down the male line. This isn’t because scientists think it only happens in males. It’s just a lot harder to study eggs than it is to study sperm.
But efforts to decipher epigenetic inheritance down the female line is the next step.
“We had to start from somewhere,” says Mansuy. “But we are looking to have a model of trauma that shows how inheritance occurs via both females and males.”
The science of epigenetic inheritance of the effects of trauma is young, which means it is still generating heated debate
There are other known kinds of epigenetic mechanisms that are relatively little studied. One of them is called histone modification, where the proteins that act as a scaffold for DNA are chemically tagged. Now research is starting to suggest that histones could also be involved in epigenetic inheritance through the generations in mammals.
“I suspect the answer is that all of these mechanisms could interact to give us the phenomenon that is intergenerational inheritance of acquired traits,” says Dias.
The science of epigenetic inheritance of the effects of trauma is young, which means it is still generating heated debate. For Yehuda, who did pioneering work on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the 1990s, this comes with a sense of déjà vu.

Exactly how trauma is passed down through the generations is still unclear as the mechanisms that act on the DNA are not fully understood (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
“Where we are with epigenetics today feels like how it was when we first started doing research into PTSD,” she says. “It was a controversial diagnosis. Not everyone believed there could be long term effect of trauma.”
Nearly 30 years later, PTSD is a medically accepted condition that explains why the legacy of trauma can span decades in a person’s lifetime.
But if trauma is shown to be passed down the generations in humans in the same way as it appears to be in mice, we shouldn’t feel a sense of inevitability about this inheritance, says Dias.
Using his cherry blossom experiments in mice, he tested what would happen if males that feared the scent were later desensitised to the smell. The mice were repeatedly exposed to the scent without receiving a foot shock.
“The mouse hasn’t forgotten, but a new association is being formed now this odour is no longer paired with the foot shock,” says Dias.
When he looked at their sperm, they had lost their characteristic “fearful” epigenetic signature after the desensitisation process. The pups of these mice also no longer showed the heightened sensitivity to the scent. So, it if a mouse “unlearns” the association of a scent and pain, then the next generation may escape the effects.
It also suggests that if humans inherit trauma in similar ways, the effect on our DNA could be undone using techniques like cognitive behavioural therapy.
“There’s a malleability to the system,” says Dias. “The die is not cast. For the most part, we are not messed up as a human race, even though trauma abounds in our environment.”
At least in some cases, Dias says, healing the effects of trauma in our lifetimes can put a stop to it echoing further down the generations.
--

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20190326-what-is-epigenetics
 

bleedinorange

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Jan 11, 2010
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In Pokey's head
#91
Too simple.

Why are there a lack of fathers in African-Americans but not in African immigrants? Is that even true? Are there more single-family homes in descendants of slavery vs new immigrants?
In 1964 when the huge expansion in welfare created what would become generational dependency, the death blow to the nuclear black family was struck. That's when women began being paid $276 monthly per child under the threat of losing said payments if the father (or male) was discovered living with the family. No bs, no hyperbole, just the facts of the day. Check LBJ's comments at the time and you'll find his words initiating the beginning of the end.
 

bleedinorange

Banned
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Jan 11, 2010
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In Pokey's head
#92
This is a pretty fascinating read on how genetic expression appears be impacted for generations after a traumatic event. It focuses on children of POW's however, I think slavery and Jim Crow would qualify as a traumatic event.

Can the legacy of trauma be passed down the generations?

Our children and grandchildren are shaped by the genes they inherit from us, but new research is revealing that experiences of hardship or violence can leave their mark too.

In 1864, nearing the end of the US Civil War, conditions in the Confederate prisoner of war camps were at their worst. There was such overcrowding in some camps that the prisoners, Union Army soldiers from the north, each had the square footage of a grave. Prisoner death rates soared.
For those who survived, the harrowing experiences marked many of them for life. They returned to society with impaired health, worse job prospects and shorter life expectancy. But the impact of these hardships did not stop with those who experienced it. It also had an effect on the prisoners’ children and grandchildren, which appeared to be passed down the male line of families.
While their sons and grandsons had not suffered the hardships of the PoW camps – and if anything were well provided for through their childhoods – they suffered higher rates of mortality than the wider population. It appeared the PoWs had passed on some element of their trauma to their offspring.
You might also like:
What happens when the food runs out?
Wet countries that are running dry
Why more men take their own lives
But unlike most inherited conditions, this was not caused by mutations to the genetic code itself. Instead, the researchers were investigating a much more obscure type of inheritance: how events in someone’s lifetime can change the way their DNA is expressed, and how that change can be passed on to the next generation.
This is the process of epigenetics, where the readability, or expression, of genes is modified without changing the DNA code itself. Tiny chemical tags are added to or removed from our DNA in response to changes in the environment in which we are living. These tags turn genes on or off, offering a way of adapting to changing conditions without inflicting a more permanent shift in our genomes.

The effects of trauma may echo down several generations, from a grandfather to their son and then to their grandson (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
But if these epigenetic changes acquired during life can indeed also be passed on to later generations, the implications would be huge. Your experiences during your lifetime – particularly traumatic ones – would have a very real impact on your family for generations to come. There are a growing number of studies that support the idea that the effects of trauma can reverberate down the generations through epigenetics.
For the PoWs in the Confederate camps, these epigenetic changes were a result of the extreme overcrowding, poor sanitation and malnutrition. The men had to survive on small rations of corn, and many died from diarrhoea and scurvy.
“There is this period of intense starvation,” says study author Dora Costa, an economist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “The men were reduced to walking skeletons.”
The sons of PoWs had an 11% higher mortality rate than the sons of non-PoW veterans
Costa and her colleagues studied the health records of nearly 4,600 children whose fathers had been PoWs, comparing them to just over 15,300 children of veterans of the war who had not been captured.
The sons of PoWs had an 11% higher mortality rate than the sons of non-PoW veterans. Other factors such as the father’s socioeconomic status and the son’s job and marital status couldn’t account for the higher mortality rate, the researchers found.
This excess mortality was mainly due to higher rates of cerebral haemorrhage. The sons of PoW veterans were also slightly more likely to die from cancer. But the daughters of former PoWs appeared to be immune to these effects.
This unusual sex-linked pattern was one of the reasons that made Costa suspect that these health differences were caused by epigenetic changes. But first Costa and her team had to rule out that it was a genetic effect.

For some reason, the trauma seem to be most strongly passed from fathers to their sons (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
“What could have happened is that a genetic trait which enabled the father to survive the camp, a tendency toward obesity for example, was then bad during normal times,” says Costa. “However, if you look within families, there are only effects among sons born after but not before the war.”
If it were a genetic trait then children born before and after the war would be equally likely to show the reduced life expectancy. With a genetic cause ruled out, the most plausible explanation left was an epigenetic effect.
“The hypothesis is that there’s an epigenetic effect on the Y chromosome,” says Costa. This effect is consistent with studies in remote Swedish villages, where shortages in food supply had a generational effect down the male line, but not the female line.
But what if this increased risk of death was due to a legacy of the father’s trauma that had nothing to do with DNA? What if traumatised fathers were more likely to abuse their children, leading to long-term health consequences, and sons bore the brunt of it more than daughters?
Children born to men before they became PoWs didn’t have a spike in mortality, but the sons of the same men after their PoW camp experience did
Once again, comparing the health of children within families helped rule this out. Children born to men before they became PoWs didn’t have a spike in mortality. But the sons of the same men after their PoW camp experience did.
“It’s a case of ruling out the other possible options,” says Costa. “A lot of it is proof by elimination and what is the most consistent explanation.”
Many of the times when trauma is thought to have echoed down the generations via epigenetics in humans are linked to the darkest moments in history. Wars, famines and genocides are all thought to have left an epigenetic mark on the descendants of those who suffered them.

An epigenetic signal in the children of people who have survived traumatic experiences raises hopes of reversing the effect it has on their DNA (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
Some studies have proved more controversial than others. A 2015 study found that the children of the survivors of the Holocaust had epigenetic changes to a gene that was linked to their levels of cortisol, a hormone involved in the stress response.
“The idea of a signal, an epigenetic finding that is in offspring of trauma survivors can mean a lot of things,” says Rachel Yehuda, director of the Traumatic Stress Studies Division at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and an author of the study. “It’s exciting that it’s there.”
The study was small, assessing just 32 Holocaust survivors and a total of 22 of their children, with a small control group. Researchers have criticised the conclusions of the study. Without looking at several generations and searching more widely in the genome, we can’t be sure it is really epigenetic inheritance.
Yehuda acknowledges that the paper was blown out of proportion in some reports, and larger studies assessing several generations would be needed draw firm conclusions.
“It was one single small study, a cross-section of adults many, many years after parental trauma. The fact we got a hint was big news,” says Yehuda. “Now the question is, how do you put meat on the bones? How do you really understand the mechanism of what is happening?”
When pups smelled the scent of cherry blossom, they became more jumpy and nervous than pups whose fathers hadn’t been conditioned to fear it
Controlled experiments in mice have allowed researchers to hone in on this question. A 2013 study found that there was an intergenerational effect of trauma associated with scent. The researchers blew acetophenone – which has the scent of cherry blossom – through the cages of adult male mice, zapping their foot with an electric current at the same time. Over several repetitions, the mice associated the smell of cherry blossom with pain.

The idea that the effect of a traumatic experience might be passed from a parent to their offspring is still regarded as controversial by many (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
Shortly afterwards, these males bred with female mice. When their pups smelled the scent of cherry blossom, they became more jumpy and nervous than pups whose fathers hadn’t been conditioned to fear it. To rule out that the pups were somehow learning about the smell from their parents, they were raised by unrelated mice who had never smelt cherry blossom.
The grandpups of the traumatised males also showed heightened sensitivity to the scent. Neither of the generations showed a greater sensitivity to smells other than cherry blossom, indicating that the inheritance was specific to that scent.
This sensitivity to cherry blossom scent was linked back to epigenetic modifications in their sperm DNA. Chemical markers on their DNA were found on a gene encoding a smell receptor, expressed in the olfactory bulb between the nose and the brain, which is involved in sensing the cherry blossom scent. When the team dissected the pups’ brains they also found there was a greater number of the neurons that detect the cherry blossom scent, compared with control mice.
It is not that fear is being passed down the generations – it is that fear in one generation leads to sensitivity in the next
The second and third generation appeared to have not a fear of the scent itself, but a heightened sensitivity to it. The finding brings to light an often-missed subtlety of epigenetic inheritance – that the next generation doesn’t always show exactly the same trait that their parents developed. It is not that fear is being passed down the generations – it is that fear of a scent in one generation leads to sensitivity to the same scent in the next.
“So this is not ‘apples for apples’,” says Brian Dias, author of the study and a researcher at Emory University and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in the US. Even the term “inheritance” should be qualified here, he adds. “The word inheritance suggests it has to be a faithful representation of a trait that’s passed down.”
The consequences of passing down the effects of trauma are huge, even if they are subtly altered between generations. It would change the way we view how our lives in the context of our parents’ experience, influencing our physiology and even our mental health.

The offspring of mice condititioned to fear the smell of flowers would also be sensitive to the same scent (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
And knowing that the consequences of our own actions and experiences now could affect the lives of our children – even long before they might be conceived – could put a very different spin on how we choose to live.
Despite picking up these echoes of trauma down the generations, there is a big stumbling block with research into epigenetic inheritance: no one is sure how it happens. Some scientists think that it is actually a very rare event.
One of the reasons that it may not be widespread is that the vast majority of one type of epigenetic mark on the DNA – the addition of a clump of chemicals known as methylation – is wiped clean at the very start of life and the process of adding these chemical groups to the DNA begins almost from scratch.
Despite these echoes of trauma down the generations, there is a big stumbling block with research into epigenetic inheritance: no one is sure how it happens
“As soon as the sperm enters the egg in a mammal, there’s a rapid loss of DNA methylation from the paternal set of chromosomes,” says Anne Ferguson-Smith, a researcher studying epigenetics at the University of Cambridge. “That’s the reason why transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is such a surprise.
“It’s very hard to imagine how you could have epigenetic inheritance when there’s a process of removal of all the epigenetic marks and putting on new ones in the next generation.”
There are, however, parts of the genome that are not wiped clean. A process called genomic imprinting protects the methylation at specific points of the genome. But these sites are not the ones where the epigenetic changes relevant to trauma are found.
A recent study by Ferguson-Smith’s group suggests epigenetic inheritance is probably very rare in mice.

Epigenetics is thought to be the link between nature and nurture, where a person's experiences alters how their DNA is read by their cells (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
But other researchers are convinced that they have found the hallmarks of epigenetic inheritance for several traits – in humans as well as animals. What’s more, they think they’ve found a mechanism for how it works. This time it could be molecules similar to DNA – known as RNA – that are altering how genes function.
A recent paper has revealed strong evidence that RNA may play a role in how the effects of trauma can be inherited. Researchers examined how trauma early in life could be passed on by taking mouse pups away from their mothers right after birth.
“Our model is quite unique,” says Isabelle Mansuy of the University of Zürich and ETH Zürich, who led the research. “It’s to mimic dislocated families, or the abuse, neglect and emotional damage that you sometimes see in people.”
The symptoms these pups showed as they grew up also mimicked the symptoms seen in children who have experienced early trauma. The mice showed signs of increased risk-taking and higher calorie intake, both seen in child trauma survivors. When the males grew up, they had pups that showed similar traits – overeating, risk taking and higher levels of antisocial behaviour.
The pups showed the typical altered behavioural patterns of those whose parents experienced trauma
The researchers extracted RNA molecules from the sperm of male mice who had been traumatised and injected these molecules into early the embryos of mice whose parents had not experienced this early-life trauma. The resulting pups, however, showed the typical altered behavioural patterns of a pup whose parents experienced trauma.
They also found that different lengths of RNA molecules were linked to different behavioural patterns: longer RNAs corresponded to greater food intake, changed the body’s response to insulin and greater risk-taking. Smaller RNA molecules were linked to showing signs of despair.
“It’s the first time we’ve seen this link in a causal way,” says Mansuy.

It is possible that emotional damage experienced in your own childhood could be passed on to your children (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
How these RNA molecules alter the behaviour of multiple generations is not yet known. Mansuy is now running experiments in humans to see if similar processes are at work in humans. Initial experiments by other researchers have shown that this does seem to be the case in men.
This research – as well as many of the mice studies – focus on sperm and epigenetic inheritance down the male line. This isn’t because scientists think it only happens in males. It’s just a lot harder to study eggs than it is to study sperm.
But efforts to decipher epigenetic inheritance down the female line is the next step.
“We had to start from somewhere,” says Mansuy. “But we are looking to have a model of trauma that shows how inheritance occurs via both females and males.”
The science of epigenetic inheritance of the effects of trauma is young, which means it is still generating heated debate
There are other known kinds of epigenetic mechanisms that are relatively little studied. One of them is called histone modification, where the proteins that act as a scaffold for DNA are chemically tagged. Now research is starting to suggest that histones could also be involved in epigenetic inheritance through the generations in mammals.
“I suspect the answer is that all of these mechanisms could interact to give us the phenomenon that is intergenerational inheritance of acquired traits,” says Dias.
The science of epigenetic inheritance of the effects of trauma is young, which means it is still generating heated debate. For Yehuda, who did pioneering work on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the 1990s, this comes with a sense of déjà vu.

Exactly how trauma is passed down through the generations is still unclear as the mechanisms that act on the DNA are not fully understood (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
“Where we are with epigenetics today feels like how it was when we first started doing research into PTSD,” she says. “It was a controversial diagnosis. Not everyone believed there could be long term effect of trauma.”
Nearly 30 years later, PTSD is a medically accepted condition that explains why the legacy of trauma can span decades in a person’s lifetime.
But if trauma is shown to be passed down the generations in humans in the same way as it appears to be in mice, we shouldn’t feel a sense of inevitability about this inheritance, says Dias.
Using his cherry blossom experiments in mice, he tested what would happen if males that feared the scent were later desensitised to the smell. The mice were repeatedly exposed to the scent without receiving a foot shock.
“The mouse hasn’t forgotten, but a new association is being formed now this odour is no longer paired with the foot shock,” says Dias.
When he looked at their sperm, they had lost their characteristic “fearful” epigenetic signature after the desensitisation process. The pups of these mice also no longer showed the heightened sensitivity to the scent. So, it if a mouse “unlearns” the association of a scent and pain, then the next generation may escape the effects.
It also suggests that if humans inherit trauma in similar ways, the effect on our DNA could be undone using techniques like cognitive behavioural therapy.
“There’s a malleability to the system,” says Dias. “The die is not cast. For the most part, we are not messed up as a human race, even though trauma abounds in our environment.”
At least in some cases, Dias says, healing the effects of trauma in our lifetimes can put a stop to it echoing further down the generations.
--

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20190326-what-is-epigenetics
Psychobabble excuse making bullshart.
 

steross

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#93
Thats why i said someone smarter than me was needed to get to the bottom of it, here is what i do know. In order for society to continue, people have to be held accountable for their illegal actions, especially the violent ones, regardless of the circumstances of your ancestors. All of these protests come from disproportionate violence on black people by police but completely disregard the reason for that, black people commit disproportionately more crime,
As @okstate987 pointed out, for the past several decades we have been doing exactly what you are saying. We got strict with laws. We have incarcerated more people than anywhere in history. And, has that fixed the issue?

Nobody is disregarding crime rates. But, there are two options. Either there is something inherently wrong with black people that make them commit more crime. Or, our society creates an environment that causes more of them to feel they have to turn to crime.
So, locking more of them up is probably the only option if it is true that they are just innately crime-ridden. But, that is racist bunk. If it is not that, then you have to fix the environment. Putting someone in an environment that induces criminal behavior then punishing the criminals is not effective.
 

steross

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In 1964 when the huge expansion in welfare created what would become generational dependency, the death blow to the nuclear black family was struck. That's when women began being paid $276 monthly per child under the threat of losing said payments if the father (or male) was discovered living with the family. No bs, no hyperbole, just the facts of the day. Check LBJ's comments at the time and you'll find his words initiating the beginning of the end.
Would you hush!
I was tryin' to get him there.;)

1593956269677.png
 

wrenhal

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Blacks and whites USE drugs at the same rate, they dont DEAL drugs at the same rate, they dont participate in gangs, assault, rob, murder, rape or commit other violent crimes at the same rate.

as to why this is the case? Probably need someone smarter than me for that, but i would start with the 70% of black children being raised by single mothers
Do you think mass incarceration has had a hand in why so many mothers are single?
I think that changing the name of business, and tearing down statues will not make much change in this country. Especially regarding the breakdown of the family among the black community. The high rate of single mothers had to do a lot with the glorification of the gangster lifestyle, and the subsequent music that goes along with it. When you have young men listening constantly to music that glorifies strippers and calls women nothing but ho's and the b-word all the time, there's no wonder that women are treated like something to be used and thrown away. You also have a larger pervasiveness of drug culture and crime in general in the inner cities. There's are cities that are almost exclusively run by Democrats for decades. They promise all the time to focus on cleaning things up and helping the inner cities, and then they do nothing but throw bits of money here and there and the problems persist.

You want to change the amount of black people that get a good education and go to college and get good jobs? Listen to the successful black people talk about how they were called coons, whitey, or Uncle Tom's (ironic since he's there hero of his story) just for trying to learn and succeed. Some were beat up for it. One of the ways to beat "systemic" racism is to get educated(even just a high school diploma and a trade skill). You will have a higher chance of breaking the poverty cycle and having kids that out performs you. But that's also a way out of poverty for anyone of any color. I never finished college, but I have a son that is about to and I have several that are on their way to live better lives than I have even without college. I think my life has been somewhat better than my father's so far. And I pray I live to see some of my grandbabies excel beyond me as well.

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okstate987

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Once again there is a big difference between smoking weed in your parents basement and holding down a street corner. Once again, do you think the people in jail are innocent?
I think someone who is in jail for a non-violent crime that only impacts themselves shouldn't be.

No one is advocating for violent criminals to be let out. Again, the plurality of those in jail are for non-violent offenses.
 

wrenhal

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I hear there is systemic racism embedded in our justice system, education system, corporate job environments, sports leagues, and various other institutions and organizations. While there may be some level of racism contained therein, IMO, the problems the black community experiences in those environments have many root causes which won’t be meaningfully solved by curing any imbedded racism that may exist.


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Tearing down statues, especially statues paid for and commissioned by slaves, is stupid and won't solve anything.

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So solving the mechanisms that have a significant impact on why there is a discrepancy between white and black earnings, net worth and general life opportunities won't have any effect on their quality of life? That doesn't make sense to me.

Your statues comment is a straw man. The vast majority of statues that have been pulled down were paid for by the daughters of the confederacy and other groups in the period of 1910-1960. They were built in predominantly black areas of town as a way to intimidate the black populace there. Do you have an issue with those statues coming down knowing the intent and timing of putting them up?[/QUOTE]I have seen Christopher Columbus statues, including one in an Italian neighborhood last night, being torn down.
The town where the sculptor of the emancipation monument was from, took down their copy of it.
They want the original emancipation statue taken down and tried to tear it down already. They are taking down statues just to take them down now. You are gonna honestly tell me every statue they've defaced or torn down was some form of oppression? How about the monument they defaced that celebrated the black 34th Mass. (I believe that was it)? That was representing black union soldiers that helped win the civil war. Either you are being disingenuous or you are ignorant and really think this is only about statues that intimidate. As has been said before, these people are being swayed and motivated by marxists that want to rewrite history and dismantle our form of government. And they are using the BLM momentum to encourage the indoctrinated left to accomplish it for them.

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wrenhal

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This is a pretty fascinating read on how genetic expression appears be impacted for generations after a traumatic event. It focuses on children of POW's however, I think slavery and Jim Crow would qualify as a traumatic event.

Can the legacy of trauma be passed down the generations?

Our children and grandchildren are shaped by the genes they inherit from us, but new research is revealing that experiences of hardship or violence can leave their mark too.

In 1864, nearing the end of the US Civil War, conditions in the Confederate prisoner of war camps were at their worst. There was such overcrowding in some camps that the prisoners, Union Army soldiers from the north, each had the square footage of a grave. Prisoner death rates soared.
For those who survived, the harrowing experiences marked many of them for life. They returned to society with impaired health, worse job prospects and shorter life expectancy. But the impact of these hardships did not stop with those who experienced it. It also had an effect on the prisoners’ children and grandchildren, which appeared to be passed down the male line of families.
While their sons and grandsons had not suffered the hardships of the PoW camps – and if anything were well provided for through their childhoods – they suffered higher rates of mortality than the wider population. It appeared the PoWs had passed on some element of their trauma to their offspring.
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But unlike most inherited conditions, this was not caused by mutations to the genetic code itself. Instead, the researchers were investigating a much more obscure type of inheritance: how events in someone’s lifetime can change the way their DNA is expressed, and how that change can be passed on to the next generation.
This is the process of epigenetics, where the readability, or expression, of genes is modified without changing the DNA code itself. Tiny chemical tags are added to or removed from our DNA in response to changes in the environment in which we are living. These tags turn genes on or off, offering a way of adapting to changing conditions without inflicting a more permanent shift in our genomes.

The effects of trauma may echo down several generations, from a grandfather to their son and then to their grandson (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
But if these epigenetic changes acquired during life can indeed also be passed on to later generations, the implications would be huge. Your experiences during your lifetime – particularly traumatic ones – would have a very real impact on your family for generations to come. There are a growing number of studies that support the idea that the effects of trauma can reverberate down the generations through epigenetics.
For the PoWs in the Confederate camps, these epigenetic changes were a result of the extreme overcrowding, poor sanitation and malnutrition. The men had to survive on small rations of corn, and many died from diarrhoea and scurvy.
“There is this period of intense starvation,” says study author Dora Costa, an economist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “The men were reduced to walking skeletons.”
The sons of PoWs had an 11% higher mortality rate than the sons of non-PoW veterans
Costa and her colleagues studied the health records of nearly 4,600 children whose fathers had been PoWs, comparing them to just over 15,300 children of veterans of the war who had not been captured.
The sons of PoWs had an 11% higher mortality rate than the sons of non-PoW veterans. Other factors such as the father’s socioeconomic status and the son’s job and marital status couldn’t account for the higher mortality rate, the researchers found.
This excess mortality was mainly due to higher rates of cerebral haemorrhage. The sons of PoW veterans were also slightly more likely to die from cancer. But the daughters of former PoWs appeared to be immune to these effects.
This unusual sex-linked pattern was one of the reasons that made Costa suspect that these health differences were caused by epigenetic changes. But first Costa and her team had to rule out that it was a genetic effect.

For some reason, the trauma seem to be most strongly passed from fathers to their sons (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
“What could have happened is that a genetic trait which enabled the father to survive the camp, a tendency toward obesity for example, was then bad during normal times,” says Costa. “However, if you look within families, there are only effects among sons born after but not before the war.”
If it were a genetic trait then children born before and after the war would be equally likely to show the reduced life expectancy. With a genetic cause ruled out, the most plausible explanation left was an epigenetic effect.
“The hypothesis is that there’s an epigenetic effect on the Y chromosome,” says Costa. This effect is consistent with studies in remote Swedish villages, where shortages in food supply had a generational effect down the male line, but not the female line.
But what if this increased risk of death was due to a legacy of the father’s trauma that had nothing to do with DNA? What if traumatised fathers were more likely to abuse their children, leading to long-term health consequences, and sons bore the brunt of it more than daughters?
Children born to men before they became PoWs didn’t have a spike in mortality, but the sons of the same men after their PoW camp experience did
Once again, comparing the health of children within families helped rule this out. Children born to men before they became PoWs didn’t have a spike in mortality. But the sons of the same men after their PoW camp experience did.
“It’s a case of ruling out the other possible options,” says Costa. “A lot of it is proof by elimination and what is the most consistent explanation.”
Many of the times when trauma is thought to have echoed down the generations via epigenetics in humans are linked to the darkest moments in history. Wars, famines and genocides are all thought to have left an epigenetic mark on the descendants of those who suffered them.

An epigenetic signal in the children of people who have survived traumatic experiences raises hopes of reversing the effect it has on their DNA (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
Some studies have proved more controversial than others. A 2015 study found that the children of the survivors of the Holocaust had epigenetic changes to a gene that was linked to their levels of cortisol, a hormone involved in the stress response.
“The idea of a signal, an epigenetic finding that is in offspring of trauma survivors can mean a lot of things,” says Rachel Yehuda, director of the Traumatic Stress Studies Division at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and an author of the study. “It’s exciting that it’s there.”
The study was small, assessing just 32 Holocaust survivors and a total of 22 of their children, with a small control group. Researchers have criticised the conclusions of the study. Without looking at several generations and searching more widely in the genome, we can’t be sure it is really epigenetic inheritance.
Yehuda acknowledges that the paper was blown out of proportion in some reports, and larger studies assessing several generations would be needed draw firm conclusions.
“It was one single small study, a cross-section of adults many, many years after parental trauma. The fact we got a hint was big news,” says Yehuda. “Now the question is, how do you put meat on the bones? How do you really understand the mechanism of what is happening?”
When pups smelled the scent of cherry blossom, they became more jumpy and nervous than pups whose fathers hadn’t been conditioned to fear it
Controlled experiments in mice have allowed researchers to hone in on this question. A 2013 study found that there was an intergenerational effect of trauma associated with scent. The researchers blew acetophenone – which has the scent of cherry blossom – through the cages of adult male mice, zapping their foot with an electric current at the same time. Over several repetitions, the mice associated the smell of cherry blossom with pain.

The idea that the effect of a traumatic experience might be passed from a parent to their offspring is still regarded as controversial by many (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
Shortly afterwards, these males bred with female mice. When their pups smelled the scent of cherry blossom, they became more jumpy and nervous than pups whose fathers hadn’t been conditioned to fear it. To rule out that the pups were somehow learning about the smell from their parents, they were raised by unrelated mice who had never smelt cherry blossom.
The grandpups of the traumatised males also showed heightened sensitivity to the scent. Neither of the generations showed a greater sensitivity to smells other than cherry blossom, indicating that the inheritance was specific to that scent.
This sensitivity to cherry blossom scent was linked back to epigenetic modifications in their sperm DNA. Chemical markers on their DNA were found on a gene encoding a smell receptor, expressed in the olfactory bulb between the nose and the brain, which is involved in sensing the cherry blossom scent. When the team dissected the pups’ brains they also found there was a greater number of the neurons that detect the cherry blossom scent, compared with control mice.
It is not that fear is being passed down the generations – it is that fear in one generation leads to sensitivity in the next
The second and third generation appeared to have not a fear of the scent itself, but a heightened sensitivity to it. The finding brings to light an often-missed subtlety of epigenetic inheritance – that the next generation doesn’t always show exactly the same trait that their parents developed. It is not that fear is being passed down the generations – it is that fear of a scent in one generation leads to sensitivity to the same scent in the next.
“So this is not ‘apples for apples’,” says Brian Dias, author of the study and a researcher at Emory University and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in the US. Even the term “inheritance” should be qualified here, he adds. “The word inheritance suggests it has to be a faithful representation of a trait that’s passed down.”
The consequences of passing down the effects of trauma are huge, even if they are subtly altered between generations. It would change the way we view how our lives in the context of our parents’ experience, influencing our physiology and even our mental health.

The offspring of mice condititioned to fear the smell of flowers would also be sensitive to the same scent (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
And knowing that the consequences of our own actions and experiences now could affect the lives of our children – even long before they might be conceived – could put a very different spin on how we choose to live.
Despite picking up these echoes of trauma down the generations, there is a big stumbling block with research into epigenetic inheritance: no one is sure how it happens. Some scientists think that it is actually a very rare event.
One of the reasons that it may not be widespread is that the vast majority of one type of epigenetic mark on the DNA – the addition of a clump of chemicals known as methylation – is wiped clean at the very start of life and the process of adding these chemical groups to the DNA begins almost from scratch.
Despite these echoes of trauma down the generations, there is a big stumbling block with research into epigenetic inheritance: no one is sure how it happens
“As soon as the sperm enters the egg in a mammal, there’s a rapid loss of DNA methylation from the paternal set of chromosomes,” says Anne Ferguson-Smith, a researcher studying epigenetics at the University of Cambridge. “That’s the reason why transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is such a surprise.
“It’s very hard to imagine how you could have epigenetic inheritance when there’s a process of removal of all the epigenetic marks and putting on new ones in the next generation.”
There are, however, parts of the genome that are not wiped clean. A process called genomic imprinting protects the methylation at specific points of the genome. But these sites are not the ones where the epigenetic changes relevant to trauma are found.
A recent study by Ferguson-Smith’s group suggests epigenetic inheritance is probably very rare in mice.

Epigenetics is thought to be the link between nature and nurture, where a person's experiences alters how their DNA is read by their cells (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
But other researchers are convinced that they have found the hallmarks of epigenetic inheritance for several traits – in humans as well as animals. What’s more, they think they’ve found a mechanism for how it works. This time it could be molecules similar to DNA – known as RNA – that are altering how genes function.
A recent paper has revealed strong evidence that RNA may play a role in how the effects of trauma can be inherited. Researchers examined how trauma early in life could be passed on by taking mouse pups away from their mothers right after birth.
“Our model is quite unique,” says Isabelle Mansuy of the University of Zürich and ETH Zürich, who led the research. “It’s to mimic dislocated families, or the abuse, neglect and emotional damage that you sometimes see in people.”
The symptoms these pups showed as they grew up also mimicked the symptoms seen in children who have experienced early trauma. The mice showed signs of increased risk-taking and higher calorie intake, both seen in child trauma survivors. When the males grew up, they had pups that showed similar traits – overeating, risk taking and higher levels of antisocial behaviour.
The pups showed the typical altered behavioural patterns of those whose parents experienced trauma
The researchers extracted RNA molecules from the sperm of male mice who had been traumatised and injected these molecules into early the embryos of mice whose parents had not experienced this early-life trauma. The resulting pups, however, showed the typical altered behavioural patterns of a pup whose parents experienced trauma.
They also found that different lengths of RNA molecules were linked to different behavioural patterns: longer RNAs corresponded to greater food intake, changed the body’s response to insulin and greater risk-taking. Smaller RNA molecules were linked to showing signs of despair.
“It’s the first time we’ve seen this link in a causal way,” says Mansuy.

It is possible that emotional damage experienced in your own childhood could be passed on to your children (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
How these RNA molecules alter the behaviour of multiple generations is not yet known. Mansuy is now running experiments in humans to see if similar processes are at work in humans. Initial experiments by other researchers have shown that this does seem to be the case in men.
This research – as well as many of the mice studies – focus on sperm and epigenetic inheritance down the male line. This isn’t because scientists think it only happens in males. It’s just a lot harder to study eggs than it is to study sperm.
But efforts to decipher epigenetic inheritance down the female line is the next step.
“We had to start from somewhere,” says Mansuy. “But we are looking to have a model of trauma that shows how inheritance occurs via both females and males.”
The science of epigenetic inheritance of the effects of trauma is young, which means it is still generating heated debate
There are other known kinds of epigenetic mechanisms that are relatively little studied. One of them is called histone modification, where the proteins that act as a scaffold for DNA are chemically tagged. Now research is starting to suggest that histones could also be involved in epigenetic inheritance through the generations in mammals.
“I suspect the answer is that all of these mechanisms could interact to give us the phenomenon that is intergenerational inheritance of acquired traits,” says Dias.
The science of epigenetic inheritance of the effects of trauma is young, which means it is still generating heated debate. For Yehuda, who did pioneering work on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the 1990s, this comes with a sense of déjà vu.

Exactly how trauma is passed down through the generations is still unclear as the mechanisms that act on the DNA are not fully understood (Credit: Alamy/Getty Images/BBC)
“Where we are with epigenetics today feels like how it was when we first started doing research into PTSD,” she says. “It was a controversial diagnosis. Not everyone believed there could be long term effect of trauma.”
Nearly 30 years later, PTSD is a medically accepted condition that explains why the legacy of trauma can span decades in a person’s lifetime.
But if trauma is shown to be passed down the generations in humans in the same way as it appears to be in mice, we shouldn’t feel a sense of inevitability about this inheritance, says Dias.
Using his cherry blossom experiments in mice, he tested what would happen if males that feared the scent were later desensitised to the smell. The mice were repeatedly exposed to the scent without receiving a foot shock.
“The mouse hasn’t forgotten, but a new association is being formed now this odour is no longer paired with the foot shock,” says Dias.
When he looked at their sperm, they had lost their characteristic “fearful” epigenetic signature after the desensitisation process. The pups of these mice also no longer showed the heightened sensitivity to the scent. So, it if a mouse “unlearns” the association of a scent and pain, then the next generation may escape the effects.
It also suggests that if humans inherit trauma in similar ways, the effect on our DNA could be undone using techniques like cognitive behavioural therapy.
“There’s a malleability to the system,” says Dias. “The die is not cast. For the most part, we are not messed up as a human race, even though trauma abounds in our environment.”
At least in some cases, Dias says, healing the effects of trauma in our lifetimes can put a stop to it echoing further down the generations.
--

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20190326-what-is-epigenetics
Psychobabble excuse making bullshart.
I can see that there would be effects, especially more abusive father's etc.. but there are many that escape that cycle so it isn't as cut and dry as that.

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okstate987

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I think that changing the name of business, and tearing down statues will not make much change in this country. Especially regarding the breakdown of the family among the black community. The high rate of single mothers had to do a lot with the glorification of the gangster lifestyle, and the subsequent music that goes along with it. When you have young men listening constantly to music that glorifies strippers and calls women nothing but ho's and the b-word all the time, there's no wonder that women are treated like something to be used and thrown away. You also have a larger pervasiveness of drug culture and crime in general in the inner cities. There's are cities that are almost exclusively run by Democrats for decades. They promise all the time to focus on cleaning things up and helping the inner cities, and then they do nothing but throw bits of money here and there and the problems persist.

You want to change the amount of black people that get a good education and go to college and get good jobs? Listen to the successful black people talk about how they were called coons, whitey, or Uncle Tom's (ironic since he's there hero of his story) just for trying to learn and succeed. Some were beat up for it. One of the ways to beat "systemic" racism is to get educated(even just a high school diploma and a trade skill). You will have a higher chance of breaking the poverty cycle and having kids that out performs you. But that's also a way out of poverty for anyone of any color. I never finished college, but I have a son that is about to and I have several that are on their way to live better lives than I have even without college. I think my life has been somewhat better than my father's so far. And I pray I love to see some of my grandbabies excel beyond me as well.

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So tell me what came first, the drug war and mass incarceration, or rap music and single parenting? Do you see how once this cycle starts up, it is very very difficult for people to break out of it? It is going to take something other tham money to solve. We can start breaking the cycle through criminal justice reform, which should save everyone money except prisons. Yes, it should even provide a benefit to taxpayers who currently pay on average over 48k a year to incarcerate one prisoner.